Three fishing crew died off north Wales because their boat was unstable and heavily loaded, a report has found.
Ross Ballantine, 39, Alan Minard, 20, and skipper Carl McGrath, 34, all died when their boat, the Nicola Faith, sank off the Conwy coast on 27 January 2021.
Investigators believe the boat sank too quickly for them to raise the alarm and the men were not wearing lifejackets.
The Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB) found a number of issues.
It reported the boat was regularly “operated in an unsafe manner”, with the priority on carrying a large whelk catch, rather than on making sure it was stable at sea.
Extensive modifications had also been made to the Nicola Faith, which made it more likely to capsize.
Investigators raised the boat from the seabed and carried out extensive tests to see how stable it would have been on the evening it sank.
It emerged the Nicola Faith had nearly capsized twice before while heavily loaded.
But even though the skipper had been on “stability awareness training, he prioritised the benefits of heavily loading the boat over the risk of capsize”, investigators say.
The report also concluded “the crew’s chance of survival was reduced by the vessel not being fitted with an Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB)”.
Andrew Moll, MAIB chief Inspector, said: “Nicola Faith had been modified, and the modification had not been approved.
“Nonetheless, the vessel could have been operated safely with care.
“On the day of the accident, the crew were relocating their pots to a new area and were carrying a full day’s catch as well.
“The combined weight of the catch and fishing gear piled on deck was far more than the boat was designed to carry; it capsized, and all three crew were lost in that accident.”
On the day of the accident, the boat had left its home port of Conwy at about 10:00 GMT, and was due back late evening to unload its catch of whelks.
Investigators retrieved the Nicola Faith’s inshore vessel monitoring system, which records its location, and which enabled them to conclude that it sank around 18:00.
A local shellfish buyer texted the skipper later that evening to ask how large the catch would be, and when it was due to be landed, but received no reply.
But it was the next morning before the crew were reported missing, sparking a large air and sea search, but nothing was found.
The men’s bodies washed up on the shore of north-west England six weeks later, and it was late May 2021 before the wreck of the Nicola Faith was located.